Banks were developed to keep people' s money safe and to make it available when they needed it. Since money was invented, people have been borrowing and lending it.
A modern bank accepts people' s money for safe-keeping. It also lends money and offers many other services. The experience of a businessman will show some of these. James Jones has a furniture store and buys his goods from different parts of the country. It isn' t convenient for him to send money through the mail, so he goes to the bank and opens a checking account. He puts his money in the bank regularly, and the bank keeps it until he writes cheeks for that amount. When Mr. Jones orders furniture from the Modern Furniture Company in another city, he simply writes a check. This cheek is as good as money to the owner of the company. The owner can take it to his bank and cash it, that is, he can get money for it.
Now and then Mr. Jones deposits money in savings account at the bank. The bank then uses this money and pays him a certain percentage on each dollar every year. For example, if he deposits $1000 and the bank pays him 4 percent, he will have earned $ 40 by the end of the year. This payment is called interest.
Mr. Jones gets still other services from the bank. When he travels, he buys traveler' s checks from the bank instead of carrying money with him. And he can rent a safe-deposit box in the bank for his valuable papers and articles.
It' s hard to imagine that people could do business without the services of a bank.
1. To cash a check means to
- A.buy it from the bank
- B.get money for it
- C.return it to the bank
- D.ask the bank to keep it
There are altogether in the United States some 2,300 universities, colleges, junior colleges,and other institutions of higher education. What this means is that most high-school graduates can find not too far from home a place to continue their education.
What are the main varieties of institutions of higher education? To begin with, some of them-perhaps as many as 200-have very special purposes and consequently deal only with special kinds of students. Examples are Bible colleges, art institutes, etc.
About 700 of the 2,300 are junior colleges offering a two-year program. These institutions enroll about a fifth of the students in college today, roughly 1,500,000 out of 7,000,000.The largest number of institutions are liberal arts colleges, offering four-year programs leading to a bachelor' s degree, but not offering any higher degrees. Almost all of these colleges are privately controlled. There are more than 700 institutions of this type. Because most of these colleges are small, however, they account for only about 10 percent of all enrollments.
Then there are about 400 institutions that are also primarily undergraduate but in addition offer work in some academic or professional fields leading to a master' s degree or first professional degree. These include many liberal arts colleges that have expanded to include a fifth year in the field of teacher education, and also many state colleges or smaller universities that offer master' s degrees and professional degrees in a variety of fields, but do not offer a doctor' s degree.Finally, there is a group of comprehensive universities that offer the highest levels of professional and academic degrees-doctor's degrees in sciences, social sciences, medicine,engineering, education, erc-as well as master' s and bachelor' s degrees. Almost without exception these are large complex institutions. Although there are only about 150 of them, nearly half of all the young people in higher education today are enrolled in them.
2. We learn from the last two paragraphs that( )
- A.there are about 400 undergraduate institutions that offer courses leading to a master's degree but do not offer a bachelor' s degree
- B.many state universities offer master' s degrees but do not offer doctor' s degrees
- C.a large comprehensive university can offer not only master' s degrees and bachelor' s degrees but also doctor' s degrees
- D.nearly half of the students in the institution of higher education can obtain a doctor' s degree
Life insurance companies realize that death and dying leave negative impressions. Agents are trained to avoid the use of plain language in sales presentations. Instead of suggestions that you might die too soon, most agents will talk about the possibility that" something might happen to you"or that"you might be out of the picture". A better approach for the personal risk manager is to be enough of a realist to use the proper language. Eventually, you will die. Each human being faces death. You have to be objective enough to accept the certainty of your own death before you can adequately prepare for it financially.
The need for life insurance is related to the financial consequences of death. Ask yourself who will suffer financially if you die tonight. How much financial loss will that person (or persons )suffer?If you are the typical college student( unmarried, with no dependents, and being helped through college by your parents), the financial loss in the event of your death would be small and probably limited to your funeral and burial expenses. No doubt, your parents would suffer severe emotional loss, but remember that life insurance cannot replace love and affection. Life insurance can pay only money.
On the other hand, if you are the father or mother of young children, the financial consequences of your early death would be very serious. As a parent, you plan to provide your children with shelter,food, Clothing, and an education-all of which cost a great deal of money. Life insurance can replace the dollars you would have earned had you lived to support your children, As a young father or mother, you probably need life insurance in an amount that will provide for yourchildren until they are able to support themselves.
Thus,life insurance needs vary. They vary throughout one' s life. College students do not need as much life insurance as do parents of small children. Life insurance needs also vary from individual to individual, depending on the standard of living, on the number of children, on the plans for those chiidren, and on many other factors. For example, it will take a great deal more money ( and life insurance) if you plan to send your children to medical school or to law school. The best way to determine one's life insurance needs is to arrange a meeting with an experienced life insurance agent and to discuss the question individually with that agent. Life insurance needs should not be generalized.
3. Life insurance agents avoid the use of plain language in sales presentation because( )
- A.life insurance involves a large amount of money
- B.death is something people do not like to talk about
- C.most people are not adequately prepared for that kind of insurance
- D.they think this is the best way to persuade people to accept the certainty of their own death
If you do not use your arms or your legs for some time, they become weak;when you start using them again, they slowly become strong again. Everybody knows this, and nobody would think of questioning this fact. Yet there are many people who do not seem to know that the memory works in the same way. When someone says that he has a good memory, he really means that he keeps his memory in practice by exercising it regularly, either consciously or unconsciously. When someone else says that his memory is poor, he really means that he does not give it enough opportunity to become strong. The position is exactly the same as that of two people, one of whom exercises his arms and legs by playing tennis ,while the other sits in a chair or a motor car all day.
If a friend complains that his arms are weak ,we know that it is his own fault. But if he tells us that he has a poor memory, many of us think that his parents are to blame, or that he is just unlucky, and few of us realize that it is just as much his own fault as if it was his arms or legs that were weak. Not all of us can become extremely strong or extremely clever;but all of us can,if we have ordinary bodies and brains, improve our strength and our memory by the same means-practice.Have you ever noticed that people who cannot read or write usually have better memories than those who can? Why is this? Of course,because those who cannot read or write have to remember things:they cannot write them down in a little notebook. They have to remember dates, times and prices, names, songs and stories;so their memory is the Whole time being exercised.
So if you want a good memory, learn from the poor and humble : practise remembering.
4. The author seems to advise us( )
- A.to play tennis to improve our memory
- B.to complain about nothing but our health
- C.to blame ourselves rather than our parents for the poor memory
- D.to learn from those who cannot read or write
You can prevent your child from injuring himself.
Most injuries can be prevented, provided a parent goes about it the right way.
Mr. Grant was a skilled and capable surgeon. His wife-intelligent, charming and a qualified nurse-had suggested they see me about their 16-month-old son, Neville.
Mrs. Grant spoke first, "We' re both professional people, and I guess we' re supposed to know more than most people. It hurts us to admit our little Neville is such a problem. ""He's all over the house, climbing,handling things he's not supposed to be touching," Mr.Grant interrupted, "and we' re afraid he' ll badly injure himself and it' ll be our fault. "
Mrs. Grant continued," He's a very active child, always on the going, exploring, and we just can' t seem to make him stop touching things he' s not supposed to touch, like cups, saucers,lamps, electrical things. It' s such a problem trying to watch him all the time. "
"Does he have some understanding of the word' no' ?"I asked.
"That' s just it, we can' t be sure if he has or not. Sometimes he seems understand, but at other times he just doesn' t seem to mind when we say' no' , "the father replied.
"Teaching a child the meaning of the word' no' can be crucial in preventing accidents. Unless your Neville can understand the true meaning of' no '-and only you two can teach it to him at this stage-there' s bound to be trouble,"I stated emphatically.
Children between the age of one and two often injure themselves, sometimes quite seriously,if they' ve not been properly trained to respond to the word" no". It' s only natural that your child,having only recently learned to move about, should want to explore and find out about this big,beautiful world around him. His sense of curiosity gets the better of him.
To begin With, the fewer" no' s" you tell your child, the better off things will be. This can be done by thoughtfully removing from the room all those forbidden objects you suspect he' ll reach for. The fewer forbidden objects there are in the room ,within his possible reach, the less often you'll have to say" no" to prevent him from reaching for something, the quicker he' ll learn he must obey. You must be absolutely consistent. Be quick, alert, and fast-acting in preventing him from reaching for a forbidden object. Say"no" and instantly pull him away from the object. Draw his attention, towards something else he can play with.
Your child will not learn the meaning of" no" if one day he' s allowed to reach for cups and saucers, but next day you change the rule and try to stop him. So consistency is important.Your tone of voice must be firm, determined, clear and coupled with instant removal from the thing you don' t want him to touch.
5. The author is most probably( )
- A.a teacher
- B.a psychologist
- C.an experienced mother or father
- D.a nurse
I was shown into the waiting-room which, as I had expected, was full. Any waiting-room-especiall a dentist' s as this was-is not the best place in the world to spend an afternoon. No matter how hard a dentist tries to make his waiting-room look pleasant, it always has an atmosphere of its own. There is that odd smell that reminds you of a hospital. A small table in the centre is covered with very old and torn magazines;the curtains are faded;and the armchairs have a hollow,sunken look about them.
I took my seat and decided to pass the time watching the people around me. A little man beside me was turning over the pages of a magazine quickly and nervously. It was hard to understand what he was looking at ,for every three minutes or so he would throw the magazine on to the table, seize another, and sink back into his chair. Opposite me there was a young mother who was trying to restrain her son from making a noise. The boy had obviously grown weary of waiting. He had placed an ash-tray on the floor and was making aeroplane-noises as he waved a pencil in his hands. Near him, an old man was fast asleep, and the boy' s mother was afraid that sooner or later her son would wake the gentleman up. Meanwhile, the little man next to me kept sighing loudly.At last, the door opened and a nurse entered. The people looked up expectantly with a ray of hope in their eyes, then settled down again as the next lucky patient was led out of the room.
6. While he was in the waiting-room, the writer passed the time( )
- A.by reading magazines
- B.by drawing a picture of the room
- C.by watching the boy playing his model aeroplane
- D.by looking at the people in the room
There are many aspects of the women' s liberation movement. Some women agree with all of the goals of women' s liberation. They want full equality with men in every aspect of life. In marriage, they want husbands and wives to share all of the work and responsibilities of a home and family. In work, they want women and men to have the same jobs and the same chance to succeed.They want women to be paid just as much as men are for the same work. Other women agree with some of the ideas of women' s liberation. They want the same pay if they hold the same job as a man. At home, however, they do not expect their husbands to share in the cleaning, cooking, and other household jobs.
It is important to remember that the women' s liberation movement is not concerned only with concrete issues. The movement is also concerned with attitudes and beliefs. One example of this concern is the issue of a woman' s identity. A woman' s identity is what she thinks of herself as a person, who she thinks she is, and what she thinks she can do. Some women do not think they are capable of doing anything important. The women' s liberation movement would like to help these women improve their views of themselves. Many women who are concerned with women' s liberation have taken jobs, have helped others, have raised healthy children, and have done many other things to contribute to their communities. They have shown that they are capable of being good leaders and of doing many important things.
7. Those who support women' s liberation believe that( )
- A.men and women are the same
- B.men and women are equal in every way
- C.some work can only be done by women
- D.men should do more than women
A person who is able to operate a machine, prepare a financial statement, program a computer, or pass a football has a technical skill. That is, he or she is able to perform the mechanics of a particular job. Managers such as production supervisors must often understand a technical skill well enough to train workers in their jobs. In certain companies, executives without technical skills can manage non-production workers who have technical skills in programming, engineering,or accounting. But even here, most managers have to have some technical skills-such as scheduling techniques and the ability to read computer printouts.
Technical skills are sometimes not readily transferable from one industry to another, whereas general management skills can often be applied to a wide range of industries. If you' re trained to operate textile-cutting machines ,you probably would be unable to use your skills in the restaurant business. If you' re an executive who runs a garment business, however, you might be able to use your general management skills in different enterprises.
8. General management skills
- A.can be learned but not be taught at a technical school
- B.are used by general managers in different ways
- C.can be applied to different enterprises
- D.are not readily transferable from one industry to another
London is great. It' s great. Rome and Paris were fine places, but I knew as soon as we landed in London that this is the finest of the three.
There are only two small things which I don' t like about London. First of all, everyone speaks English here. I had so much fun in Rome and in Paris. There I could speak in foreign languages. In restaurants and museums I often asked people the meaning of words. I made a lot of friends that way. But here everybody can understand me. I don' t have any reason to start up a conversation with a stranger. And speaking of restaurants-that' s the other problem with London.The food here is no good at all! I haven' t had one good meal in the three days we're been here.Since you asked me to write to you about everything I learned on this trip, here is what I' ve learned about London.
London' s population of eleven million makes it the second largest city in the world. It is bigger than New York but not as big as Tokyo. London is twice the size of New York. It has an area of 620 square miles !
The Thames river runs right through the center of the city. Someone once called the Thames"liquid history". It' s a very good name. Dozens of armies have crossed it over the past few thousand years. One of the first was the army of Julius Caesar two thousand years ago. And most recently-Mr. and Mrs. Gill!
So far I have only had time to visit one neighborhood. It is called Bloomsbury. You wouldn' t believe how many famous writers and poets have lived in Bloomsbury. In fact there is a group of writers known as the Bloomsbury Group. It got its name because so many of them lived here. Virginia Woolf was one of them. I know how much you like her novels.
Baker Street is also part of Bloomsbury. Do you remember who once lived on Baker Street?(When I asked Bob this question, he answered, "A man who baked bread, right?")Sherlock Holmes， of course, I won't have time to find his address. Maybe you will when you come!
9. Who do you think Mr. and Mrs. Gill?( )
- A.A famous general and his wife.
- B.A famous American writer and his wife.
- C.Two friends of the writer' s.
- D.The writer and her husband.
People will do anything to see a free show-even if it is a bad one. When the news got round that a variety show would be presented at our local cinema by the Bird Seed Company, we all rushed to see it. We had to queue for hours to get in and there must have been several hundred people present just before the show began. Unfortunately, the show was one of the dullest we have ever seen. Those who failed to get in need not have felt disappointed as many of the artistes who should have appeared did not come. The only funny thing we heard that evening came from the advertiser at the beginning of the programme. He was obviously very nervous and for some minutes stood aWkwardly before the microphone. As soon as he opened his mouth, everyone burst out laughing. We all know what the poor man should have said, but what the actually said was : "This is the Seed Bird Company. Good ladies, evening and gentlemen! "
10. Before the audience got in the cinema( )
- A.they had booked the tickets
- B.the show had already begun
- C.they knew it was not worth seeing
- D.they had waited outside for a long time
Some people seem to think that sports and games are unimportant things that people do, at times when they are not working, instead of going to the cinema, listening to the radio, or sleeping.But in actual fact sports and games can be of great value, especially to people who work with their brains most of the day, and should not be treated only as amusements.
Sports and games make our bodies strong, prevent us from getting too fat, and keep us healthy. But these are not their only uses. They give us valuable practice in making eyes, brain and muscles work together. In tennis our eyes see the ball coming,judge its speed and direction,and pass this information on to the brain. The brain then has to decide what to do, and to send its orders to the muscles of the arms, legs, and so on, so that the ball is met and hit back where it ought to go. All this must happen with very great speed and only those who have had a lot of practice at tennis can carry out his complicated chain of events successfully. For those who work with their brains most of the day, the practice of such skills is especially useful.
Sports and games are also very useful for character-training. In their lessons at school, boys and girls may learn about such virtues as unselfishness, courage, discipline and love of one' s country ; but what is learned from books cannot have the same deep effect on a child' s character as what is learned by experience. The ordinary day-school cannot give much practical training in living, because most of the pupils' time is spent in classes, studying lessons. So it is what the pupils do in their spare time that really prepares them to take their place in society as citizens when they grow up .If each of them learns to work for his team and not for himself on the football field,he will later find it natural to work for the good of his country instead of only for his own benefit.
11. According to the writer, a child' s character( )
- A.is very useful in sports and games
- B.can be trained and improved in sports and games
- C.has a deep effect on sports and games
- D.can be learned from books at school
There are a number of routes you can take to enter the field of early childhood education, and a variety of opportunities for training and professional development exist. Some people who think they might like to work with young children get their initial experience through volunteering or taking a position in a preschool as a substitute teacher or classroom aide. Others enroll in a high school or college course in child development or early childhood education. Those who are more certain that teaching young children is what they want to do may go directly into a teacher education program in a two-or four-year college. Many outstanding early childhood educators were introduced to the field through their own child' s enrollment in a preschool program.
Professional qualifications for work in early childhood programs vary from state to state.The minimum requirement to work with young children is good health and a high school diploma. Most states require that teachers be qualified to work with children, by having a college degree. Some positions that involve supervision of staff or curriculum development may require a Master' s degree in education or child development.
12. According to the passage, an early childhood educator may begin his career( )
- A.as a substitute vteacher at high school
- B.as an employee at school early in his childhood
- C.through working as a classroom aide in preschool
- D.through teaching a college course in child development
The White Company manufactures automobile tires in two large factories. From several suppliers, the company purchases raw materials such as rubber and steel.
The company spends more than four million dollars a year for materials. The labor force in the two plants numbers more than five thousand workers. The company pays even more in wages to the workers than it does for materials. The cost of labor amounts to seven or eight million dollars a year.
All of these expenses-plant, materials, and labor-are direct costs in manufacturing the tires. In addition, the company pays a share of the benefits the workers receive, sueh as health insurance. There is also a tax on the payroll. These are among the eompany' s indirect costs.There are other indirect costs in selling the product. The company has to pay the salaries and expenses of the sales staff. It must also pay for the space that the sales office occupies. Advertising is another major cost in selling the product.
Distribution of the product results in still more indirect costs. First the company must store the tires that have not yet been sold. Then the company must prepare the tires for shipment. On some sales it is neeessary for the company to pay the cost of transportation and insurance. On other sales there may be a tax as well.
special branch of accounting deals with all these different costs. Cost accountants examine all the direct and indirect expenses involved in manufacturing, selling, and distributing the product. Then they figure out the cost of eaeh unit of the product.
Even then the accountants have not arrived at a final cost. In addition to direct and indirect costs, the company has other expenses. There are the costs for the administration of the company. The company has to pay salaries to its office workers. It also provides space for them to work in and equipment for them to use.
13. Distribution of products refers to the process of( )
- A.marketing the products
- B.manufacturing the goods
- C.calculating the costs
- D.consuming the products
Following divorce, life for you and your children can be unnecessarily complicated bya variety of problems you simply hadn't foreseen.
Yet once you understand how and why your life has changed after divorce, and what you can do about it, you can gain a fresh perspective and move in the direction of improving your life.Richard Crawford was only six years old when his mother, a beautiful 32-year-old woman,first brought him to me. She claimed that Richard had" problems" adjusting to the divorce she' d acquired only five months previously. But after several sessions, she tearfully confessed that bringing Richard to see me was only an excuse to get help for herself. "I felt shy at first about telling you the truth,but I simply have to get the whole thing off my mind. Since I divorced Clive about five months ago,my life's collapsed. I feel so depressed,lonely,rejected,afraid of the future!""And now you feel the divorce was a big mistake?"I asked.
"Yes. But I was the one who wanted the divorce, and now I feel so miserable and depressed. I guess I' m too mixed up to think in a clear way, "she replied.
"It' s very common for somebody to realize gradually that life after a divorce can be more hurtful, in so many unexpected ways, than the life they endured with their former spouse (配偶).Right now things look pretty grim and hopeless. But you'll survive, and hopefully, start a new and better life for yourself and Richard. "
You should not use Richard as an excuse not to be socially active. You've a right to build a new life for yourself, to change your style of living to suit your new circumstances. Your self-confi-dence can be built up again through happy, pleasant, rewarding social experiences with new friends,new hobbies, a new life style. Don' t let guilt feelings stand in your way.
14. The author was most probably( )
- A.a lawyer
- B.a psychologist
- C.one of Mrs. Crawford' s best friends
- D.the woman' s potential new husband
Doctors have known for a long time that extremely loud noises can cause hearing damage or loss. The noise can be the sound of a jet airplane or machines in factories or loud music or other common sounds found at home and at work. A person only needs to hear the noise for little more than one second to be affected.
An American scientist has found that using aspirin can increase the temporary( 短暂的 )hearing loss or damage from loud noise. He did an experiment using a number of students at a university who all had normal hearing. He gave them different amounts of aspirin for different periods of time, then he tested their hearing ability. He found that students who were given four grams of aspirin a day for two days suffered much greater temporary hearing loss than those who did not use aspirin. The hearing loss was about two times as great.
The scientist said millions of persons in the United States use much larger amounts of aspirin than were used in his experiment. He said these persons face a serious danger of suffering hearing loss from loud noise.
15. Why are millions of Americans in danger of suffering hearing loss? ( )
- A.Because they Often take air trips.
- B.Because they like listening to loud music.
- C.Because they have too much loud noises at home and at work.
- D.Because they take too much aspirin.