Read the following four texts．Answer the questions below each text by choosing A，B，C or D Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1．
Over the past decade，thousands of patents have been granted for what are called business methods．Amazon．com received one for its“one-click”online payment system．Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy．One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box．
Now the nation’s top patent court appears completely ready to scale back on business-method patents，which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago．In a move that has intelleCtual-propeny lawyers abuzz，the U S．Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit said it would use a particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents．In re Bilski，as the case is known，is“a very big deal，”says Dennis D．Crouch of the University of Missouri School of Law．It“has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents．”
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face，because it was the Federal Circuit itself that introduced．such patents with its 1998 decision in the so-called State Street Bank case，approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets．That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings，initiaily by emerging Internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions．Later，more established companies raced to add such patents to their files，if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch．In 2005，IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents，despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them．Similarly，some was Street investment firms armed themselves with patents for financial products，even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice．
The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market．The Federal Circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 0f the court’s judges，rather than a typical panel of three，and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should“re-consider”its State Street Bank ruling．
The Federal Circuk’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the Supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders．Last April，for example，the justices sighaled that too many patents were being upheld for“inventions”that are obvious．The judges on the Federal Circuit are“reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court，”says Harold C．Wegner，a pa-tent attorney and professor at George Washington University Law School。
1. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?()
- A.Its ruling complies with the court decisions．
- B.It involves a very big business trinsaction．
- C.It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
- D.It may change the legal practices in the U．S．
The relationship between formal education and economic growth in poor countries is widely misunderstood by economists and politicians dike．Progress in both areas is undoubtedly necessary for the social，poetical，and intellectual development of these and all other societies；however，the conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid economic development in poor countries is wrong．Weare fortunate that it is，because building new educational systems there and putting enough people through them to improve economic performance would require two or three generations．The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radically higher productivity and，as a result，radically higher standards of living．
Ironically，the first evidence for this idea appeared in the United States．Not long ago，with the country entering a recession and Japan at its pre-bubble peak，the US．workforce was derided as poorly educated and one of the primary causes of the poor U S．economic performance．Japan was．and remains，the global leader in automotive-assembly productivity．Yet the research revealed that the U．S．factories of Honda，Nissan，and Toyota achieved about 95 percent of the productivity of their Japanesecounterparts--a result of the training that u S．workers received on the job．
More recently，while examining housing construction，the researchers discovered that illiterate，non-English-speaking Mexican workers in Houston，Texas，consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry's work.
What is the real relationship between education and economic development?We have to suspect that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education even when governments don’t force it．After all，that’s how education got started．When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10 000years ago，they didn’t have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food．Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things．
As education improved，humanity’s productivity potential increased as well.When the competitive environment pushed our ancestors to achieve that potential,they could in turn afford more education.This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary,but not a sufficient,condition for the complex political sysytems required by advanced economic performance.Thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only With broader formal education．A lack of formal education，however，doesn’t constrain the ability of the"developing world’s workforce to substantially improve productivity for the foreseeable future On the contrary，constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn’t developing more quickly there than it is．
2. A major difference between the Japanese and U．S workforces is that ()
- A.the Japanese workforce is better disciplined
- B.the Japanese workforce is more productive
- C.the U．S．workforce has a better education
- D.the U.S. workforce is more organized
Read the following four texts．Answer the questions below each text by choosing[A]，[B]，[C]or [D]．Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l．
While still catching up to men in some spheres of modern life，women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category．“Women are particularly susceptible to developing depression and anxiety disorders in response to stress compared to men，”according to Dr．Yehuda，chief psychiatrist at New York’s Veteran’s Administration Hospital．
Studies of both animals and humans have shown that sex hormones somehow affect the stress response，causing females under stress to produce more of the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions。In several of the studies，when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries(the female re-productive organs)removed，their chemical responses became equal to those of the males．
Adding to a woman’s increased dose of stress chemicals。are her increased“opportunities”for stress．“It’s not necessarily that women don't cope as well．It's just that they have so much more to cope with，”says Dr．Yehuda．“Their capacity for tolerating stress may even be greater than men’s，”she ob-serves，“it’s just that they’re dealing with so many more things that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner．”
Dr．Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes．“I think that the kinds of things that women are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature．Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress．Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence．The kinds of interpersonal violence that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations，by，unfortunately，parents or other family members，and they tend not to be one-shot deals．The wear-and,tear that comes from these longer relationships can be quite devastating．”
Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son，but was determined to finish college．“I struggled a lot to get the college degree．I was living in so much frustration that that was my escape，to go to school，and get ahead and do better．”Later，her marriage ended and she became a single mother． “It’s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager，have a job，pay the rent，pay the car payment，and pay the debt．I lived from paycheck to paycheck”
Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronie stresses Alvarez describes．But most women today are coping with a lot of obligations，with few breaks，and feeling the strain．Alvarez’s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways to diffuse stress before it threatens your health and your ability to function．
3. According to Paragraph 4, the stress women confront tends to be()．
- A.domestic and temporary
- B.irregular and violent
- C.durable and frequent
- D.trivial and random
Read the following four texts．Answer the questions below each text by choosing[A]，[B]，[C]or[D]．Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1．
If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006，s world Cup tournament．you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk:elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months．If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the world Cup and professional ranks，you would find this strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced．
What might account for this strange phenomenon?Here are a few guesses：a)certain astrological signs confer superior,soccer skills; b)winter；born babies tend to have higher oxygen capacity，which in creases soccer stamina c)soccer-mad parents are more likely to conceive children in springtime，at the annual peak of soccermania；d)none of the above．
Anders Ericsson，a 58-year-old psychology professor at Florida State University，says he believes strongly in“none of the above”Ericsson grew up in Sweden，and studied nuclear engineering until he realized he would have more opportunity to conduct his own research if he switched to psychology．His first experiment．nearly 30 years ago，involved memory：training a person to hear and then repeat a random series of numbers．“With the first subject，after about 20 hours of training，his digit span had risen from 7 to 20，”Ericsson recalls．“He kept improving，and after about 200 hours of training he had risen to over 80 numbers．”
This success，coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined,led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one．In other words，whatever inborn differences two people、may exhibit in their abilities to memorize，those differences are swamped by how well each person“encodes”the information．And the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfully，Ericsson determined，was a process known as deliberate practice．Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task．Rather，it involves setting specific goals，obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome．
Ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers in a wide range of pursuits，including soccer．They gather all the data they can，not just performance statistics and biographical details but also the results of their own laboratory experiments with high achievers．Their work makes a Lather startling assertion：the trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated．Or，put another way，expert performers-whether in memory or surgery，ballet or computer programming-are nearly always made，not born．
4. The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to ( )
- A.stress the importance of professional training
- B.spotlight the Soccer superstars in the World Cup
- C.introduce the topic of what makes expert performance
- D.explain why some soccer teams play better than others
When prehistoric man arrived in new parts of the world，something strange happened to the large animals：they suddenly became extinct Smaller species survived.The large，slow-growing animals were easy game，and were quickly hunted to extinction.Now something similar could be happening in the oceans．
That the seas are being overfished has been known for years．What researchers such as Ransom Myers and Boris Worm have shown is just how fast things are changing．They have looked at half a century n．data from fisheries around the world．Their methods do not attempt to estimate the actual biomass (the amount of living biological matter)of fish species in particular parts of the ocean，but rather changes in that biomass over time．According to their latest paper published in Nature，the biomass of large predators(animals that kill and eat other animals)in a new fishery is reduced on average by 80％within 15years of the start of exploitation．In some long-fished areas，it has halved again since then．
Dr．Worm acknowledges that these figures are conservative．One reason for this is that fishing technology has improved．Today’s vessels can find their prey using satellites and sonar，which were not available 50 years ago．That means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught．so the real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in catch sizes．In the early days，too，longlines would have been more saturated with fish．Some individuals would therefore not have been caught，since no baited hooks would have been available to trap them，leading to all underestimate of fish stocks in the past．Furthermore，in the early days of longline fishing，a lot of fish were lost to sharks after they had been hooke&That is no longer a problem．because there are fewer sharks around now．
Dr．Myers and Dr．Worm argue that their work gives a correct baseline，which future management efforts must take into account．They believe the data support an idea current among marine biologists， that of the“shifting baseline”．The notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean because they have been looking back only a relatively short time into the past That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield that can be cropped from a fishery comes when the biomass of a target species is about 50％of its original levels．Most fisheries are well below that，which is a bad way to do business．
5. The extinction of large prehistoric animals is noted to suggest that()
- A.large animals were vulnerable to the changing environment
- B.small species survived as large animals disappeared
- C.large sea animals may face the same threat today
- D.slow-growing fish outlive fast-growing ones
Read the follOwing four texts．Answer the questions below each text by choosing[A)，[B]，[C]or[D]．Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1
Everybody loves a fat pay rise．Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one．Indeed，if he has a reputation for slacking，you might even be outraged。Such behaviour is regarded as“all too human”，with the underlying assumption that other animals would not he capable of this finely developed sense of grievance．But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta，Georgia，which has just been published in Nature，suggests that it is all too monkey,as well．
The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys．They look cute．They are good-natured，co-operative creatures，and they share their food readily．Above all，like their female human counterparts，they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of“goods and services”than mates．
Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr．Brosnan’s and Dr．de waal’s study．There searchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food．Normally，the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber．However，when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers，so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock，their behaviour became markedly different．
In the world of capuchins，grapes are luxury goods(and much preferable to cucumbers)．So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token，the second was reluctant to hand hers over fora mere piece of cucumber．And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all，the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber，or refused to accept the slice of cucumber．Indeed，the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber(without an actual monkey to eat it)was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin．
The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys，like humans，are guided by social emotions．In the wild，they are a cooperative，group-living species．Such cooperation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated.Feelings of righteous indignation，it seems，are not the preserve of people alone．Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group．However，whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago，is，as yet，an unanswered question．
6. The statement"it is all too monkey"(Last line，paragraph l)implies that ()
- A.monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals
- B.resenting unfairness is also monkeys’nature
- C.monkeys，like humans，tend to be jealous of each other
- D.no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions
Hunting for a job late last year，lawyer Cant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder，a job database onthe Internet He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site’s“personal search agent”．It’s an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location，title，and salary，then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database.Redmon chose the keywords legal，intellectual property and Washington，D. C. Three weeks later，he got his first notification of an opening．“I struck gold，”says Redmon，who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for a company．
With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet，finding promising openings can be time-consuming and inefficient．Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases．But although a search agent worked for Redmon，career experts see drawbacks．Narrowing your criteria，for example，may work against you：“Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility，”says one expert．
For any job search，you should start with a narrow concept-what you think you want to do-then broaden it．“None of these programs do that，”says another expert．“There’s no career counseling implicit in all of this．”Instead，the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database；when you get E-mail，consider it a reminder to check the database again“I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me，”says the author of a job-searching guide．
Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return．when CareerSite’s agent sends out messages to those who have signed up for its service，for example，it includes only three potential jobs those it considers the best matches．There may be more matches in the database；job hunters will have to visit the site again to find them--and they do．“On the day after we send our messages，we see a sharp increase in our traffic，”says Seth Peets，vice president of marketing for CareerSite．
Even those who aren’t hunting for jobs may find search agents worthwhile．Some use them to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise．Although happily employed，Redmon maintains his agent at CareerBuilder．“You always keep your eyes open，”he says．Working with a personal search agent means having another set of eyes looking out for you．
7. The expression“tip service”(Line 3-4，Paragraph 3)most probably means ?
Wild Bill Donovan would have loved the Internet．The American spymaster who built the Office of strategic Services in world WarⅡand later laid the roots for the CIA was fascinated with information．Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the“great game”of espionage-spying as a“profession”These days the Net,which has already re-made such everyday pastimes as buying books and sending mail，is reshaping Donovan’s vocation as well．
The latest revolution isn't simply a matter of gentlemen reading other gentlemen’s e-mail．That kind of electronic spying has been going on for decades．In the past three or four years，the World Wide Web has given birth to a whole industry of point—and-click spying．The spooks call it“open-source intelligence,”and as the Net grows，it is becoming increasingly influential．In 1995 the CIA held a contest to see who could compile the most data about Burundi．The winner， by a large margin，was a tiny Virginia company called Open Source Solutions，whose clear advantage was its mastery of the electronic world．
Among the firms making the biggest splash in this new world is Straitford，Inc．，a private intelligence-analysis firm based in Austin，Texas．Straitford makes money by selling the results of spying(covering nations from Chile to Russia)to corporations like energy-services firm McDermott International．Many of its predictions are available online at www．straitford．com．
Straiford president George Friedman says he sees the online world as a kind of mutually reinforcing tool for both information collection and distribution，a spymaster’s dream．Last week his firm was busy vacuuming up data bits from the far corners of the world and predicting a crisis in Ukraine．“As soon as that report runs，we’ll suddenly get 500 new-Internet sign-ups from．Ukraine，”says Friedman，a former political science professor．“And we’ll hear back from some of them．”Open-source spying does have its risks，of course，since it can be difficult to tell good information from back That’s where Straitford earns its keep．
Friedman relies on a lean staff of 20 in Austin．Several of his staff members have military-intelligence backgrounds．He sees the firm’s outsider status as the key to its Success．Straitford’s brids don’t sound like the usual Washington back-and-forthing，whereby agencies avoid dramatic declarations on the chance they might be wrong．Straitford，says Friedman，takes pride in its independent voice．
8. Donovan’s story is mentioned in the text to()．
- A.introduce the topic of online spying
- B.show how he fought for the US
- C.give an episode of the information war
- D.honor his unique services to the CIA
Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return?Since OPEC agreed to supply-cuts in March，the price of crude oil has jumped to almost$26 a barrel，up from less than$10 last December．This near-tripling of oil prices calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock，when prices quadrupled，and 1979一1980，when they also almost tripled．Both previous shocks resulted in double-digit inflation and global economic decline．So where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time?
The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil exports．Strengthening economic growth，at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere，could push the price higher still in the short term．
Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe than in the1970s。In most countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s。In Europe，taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price，so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past．
Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were，and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price．Energy conservation，a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy，energy-in-tensive industries have reduced oil consumption．Software，consultancy and mobile telephones use far less oil than steel or car production．For each dollar of GDP(in constant prices)rich economies now use nearly 50％less oil than in 1973．The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that，if oil prices averaged$22 a barrel for a full year，compared with$13 in 1998，this would increase the oit import bill in rich economies by only 0．25一0．5％of GDP．That is less than one-quarter of the income loss in 1974 or1980．On the other hand，oil-importing emerging economies--to which heavy industry has shifted--have become more energy-intensive，and so could be more seriously squeezed
One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that，unlike the rises in the 1970s，it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portionof the world is only just emerging from economic decline Zhe Economist’s commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago．In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%，and in 1979 by almost 30％．
9. The main reason for the latest rise of。u price is()
- A.global inflation
- B.reduction in supply
- C.fast growth in economy
- D.Iraq’s suspension of exports
A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so-called digital divide—the division of the world into the info(information)rich and the info poor．And that divide does exist today．My wife and I lectured about this looming danger twenty years ago．what was less visible then，however，were the new，positive forces that work against the digital divide．There are reasons to be optimistic．
There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow．As the Internet becomes more and more commercialized，it is in the interest of business to universalize access—after ail，the more people online，the more potential customers there are．More and more governments，afraid their countries will be left behind，want to spread Internet access．Within the next decade or tw0，one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together．As a result，I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we’ve ever had
Of course，the use of the Internet isn’t the only way to defeat poverty．And the Internet is not the only tool we have．But it has enormous potential
To take advantage of this tool，some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated anticolonial prejudices with respect to foreign investment．Countries that still think foreign investment is aninvasion of their sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructurc(the basic structural foundations of a society)in the United States． When the United States built its industrial infrastructure，itdidn’t have the capital to do so．And that is why America’s Second Wave infrastructure-includingroads，harbors，highways，ports and so on-were built with foreign investment．The English，the Germans，the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain’s former colony．They financed them．Immigrant Americans built them Guess who owns them now?The Americans．I believe the same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter．The more foreign capital you have helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure，which today is an electronic infrastructure，the better off you’re going to be．That doesn’t mean lying down and becoming fooled，or letting foreign corporations rununcontrolled．But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecominfrastructures needed to take full advantage of the Internet．
10. The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of ()
- A.providing financial support overseas
- B.preventing foreign capital’s control
- C.building industrial infrastructure
- D.accepting foreign investment
①（5）Being a man has always been dangerous. ②There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year-olds there are twice as many women as men. ③But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. ④Now, boy babies survive almost as well as girls do. ⑤This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. ⑥More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. ⑦Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby (particularly a boy baby) surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. ⑧Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more agent of evolution has gone.①There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. ②Few people are as fertile as in the past. ③Except in some religious communities, very few women have 15 children. ④Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. ⑤Most of us have roughly the same number of offspring. ⑥（6）Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection to take advantage of it have diminished. ⑦India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. ⑧The grand mediocrity of today—everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring—means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribes.For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. ②Strangely, it has involved little physical change. ③No other species fills so many places in nature. ④But in the past 100, 000 years—even the past 100 years—our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. ⑤（7）We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. ⑥Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution: they “look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension.”⑦No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.［406 words］
11. What does the example of India illustrate?
- A.Wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people.
- B.Natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor.
- C.The middle class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes.
- D.India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate.
With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation’s news coverage, as well as listen to it.And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio stations. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children’s programmes and films for an annual licence fee of ￡83 per household.It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years — yet the BBC’s future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publiclyfunded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nationwide debate in Britain.The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC — including ordinary listeners and viewers — to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC’s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.Defenders of the Corporation — of whom there are many — are fond of quoting the American slogan “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” The BBC “ain’t broke”, they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word ‘broke’, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels —— ITV and Channel 4 —— were required by the Thatcher Government’s Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels — funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers’subscriptions — which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.
12. The BBC’s “royal charter” (Line 4, Paragraph 4) stands for???????? .
- A.the financial support from the royal family.
- B.the privileges granted by the Queen.
- C.a contract with the Queen.
- D.a unique relationship with the royal family.
A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous, and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence. Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world.
The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality. Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn’t take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation.
Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. “I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner—amazing.” Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.
As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to “translate” cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word “friend”, the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor’s language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.
13. The tradition of hospitality to strangers????????.<